Which are good mics and what are good positions of the microphone rel to the violin?
Keeping in mind:
- confort for the player
- acoustic feedback sensitivity
- best quality tone from the instrument?
(this question does not include electrical violins)
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I have found that positioning a mic about halfway up the fingerboard is the best tone compromise for "mic"ing a violin live. Although I most often use a clip mic near the chin-rest pointing above the bow/string area to avoid having it in my line of sight if I look at my left hand.
Halfway up the fingerboard gives the best tone quality.
Near the bridge the sound has many high frequencies and sounds quite hard.
Near the f-hole frequencies around 250~300 hertz get a huge boost.
About Mic types, so far dpa-4099 is the best option since it's a harmless rubber clip attached to the instrument, and is a high quality condenser mic. Because it's a condenser mic it is acoustic feedback sensitive, but it has not been a problem for me.
Bluegrass players generally use a large diaphragm condenser mic (like a Neumann U87) on a boom stand pointed down. That way you can move in and out to control mix and dynamics, moving in on intros and breaks, and away when you "chunking" or filling. The condenser mic picks up a wide range, so you don't lose the warmth of the instrument as you often do with piezzo mics. You need a good sound guy to dial it in though.