The chart you show is only telling half the story.
Intervals are more than just a certain number of semitones between two notes. But that's all the chart tells.
Intervals also need the names of the two notes - or where they're written on the staff.
True, each interval will have at least a couple of names - we could even stretch that top one to augmented unison, and the penultimate one to diminished octave, for the sake of argument.
Trouble is, without knowing the actual notes concerned, we can't say accurately what an interval will be called. Just hearing two notes isn't enough. Play C and E♭, it's m3. Play C and D♯ , it's augmented 2nd. On piano, tuned 12tet, they sound identical, but how would they get written when someone is transcribing them? There's the rub. It'll depend mostly on the context - what key is it in, where's it come from, where's it going to, mainly. Make that C into B♯, and leave the E♭ as is - now it's a 4th interval - but will still sound the same as the other two.
So, while most, if not all intervals will have a 'diminished' or 'augmented' alternative name (as the chart states), mostly, those same intervals will have a more common name, depending on what the notes are called. Diatonically, they're major, minor and perfect. In key C, for example, C>G is P5. It sounds fine in that key. Make that C B♯, though, and it belongs in another key - and the interval is a 6th - a diminished 6th. Not so good in key C.