In a general sense counter-rhythm or counterpoint would apply. Lots of people focus more on the pitch against pitch, the harmonic aspect, of counterpoint. But rhythm against rhythm is the other part. In counterpoint ratios like
1:4, etc. mean one note against one, one note against two, etc. Those are combined rhythms, or "layers" of rhythm.
Composite rhythm is another term to be aware of. That's the combined result of rhythms. So if one rhythm was eight notes and another was dotted eight plus sixteenth, the resulting composite rhythm is one eight plus two sixteenths...
Understanding composite rhythm can be very helpful for one person playing two rhythms at once like a pianist of drummer. Also, it helps when counting more complex polyrhythms.
...layering of loops of different lengths...
The thing that really matters is whether the different lengths conflict with a clear meter. When the beat is divided by 2 or 3 in basic meters like
6/8 the typically with reinforce the beat. That's normal so there isn't a lot of technical language to describe it. You normally just say "long" or "short", specific note values like "dotted eighth", etc. You can speak of the beat, subdivision, and multiple levels, but that's just the same as "beat", "shorter than the beat", and "longer than the beat".
If the different lengths don't fit neatly into simple divisions/multiples of the beat, you can bring in special terms like polyrhythm. Or, depending on how the different lengths are achieved you might talk about phase like is the music of Steve Reich.
In the clip you provided I didn't hear anything special rhythmically. It sounded like basic beat subdivision and very metrically regular. That isn't surprising for styles that are supposed to have a solid groove, or trance feel. You could probably find other EDM experimenting with odd layering, but it will likely have an more agitated feel.