Meshuggah does this a lot, where they will have say a 5 note sequence in 4/4. It will look like this if each note is given a number:
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If you want a hyper-fancy academic term, this falls under the umbrella of what Harald Krebs calls "metrical dissonance."
Specifically, this is what is called a "grouping dissonance," because there are different "groups" of different metrical levels: one is a 4-level (the 4/4 meter, however implicit or explicit) and the other is a 5-level. Krebs would thus call this a G 5/4 dissonance, meaning "a grouping dissonance with two levels occurring simultaneously: one a 5-level, the other a 4-level."
If you're curious, the other type of dissonance is a "displacement dissonance." This is where two metrical levels of the same cardinality (like two 4-levels) are not aligned. Imagine, for instance, that one 4-level begins on count 1, but the other 4-level begins on the "and" of count 2.
(And if you're curious, there are other aspects to his theory, like subliminal dissonances, direct vs. indirect dissonances, etc. But without knowing more specifics of the piece, I can't address whether the terms apply here.)