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I understand the concept of rhythm and different note durations, I can play them well (when I pause and use the "1 e + a" system)

But, in many piano pieces there are different rhythms that are difficult to count while sight reading. I find it difficult to play different note durations that are combined with other note durations. For example:- A quarter note with two sixteenth notes next to it.

To be exact, right now I am just "guessing" the rhythms and note durations, I know I do have the option of listening to the music and then playing, but I would like to learn how to play with exact rhythmic accuracy and being sure of the rhythm"

My exact question is that "How to maintain accuracy in rhythm" , basically how do you perfect the note durations, if the answer is "Practice" then please suggest me some things that you have practiced that have helped you.

How do I fine-tune my rhythmic execution to align to the beats with more precision?

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    This post will probably get you some answers you're looking for in terms of general practice techniques, but I recommend opening two additional questions: 1) A question about how rhythm was taught before metronomes (and remove that part of the present post), and 2) A question about a specific rhythm you've run into trouble with, including a picture of the rhythm plus a couple measures on either side.
    – Aaron
    Apr 17, 2022 at 17:29
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    I also suggest you move mention of the history of the metronome into a separate question. The emphasis on a steady, regular, recurring beat existed for centuries before the metronome (Jean-Baptiste Lully died of a beat-marking accident), and so did the division of that beat into equal parts (thus rhythm). It's sight reading that was not heavily emphasized in earlier history. Apr 17, 2022 at 19:26
  • Meanwhile, I'm not sure whether you're looking for help with reading rhythms—with being able to decipher in time, from the dots on the page, what to play—or for help with rhythmic accuracy. Your mention of metronome and making "note durations perfect" suggests that you might simply be looking for help fine-tuning your rhythmic execution to align to the beats with more precision. Please use the "edit" button to clarify some more. Apr 17, 2022 at 19:28
  • Thanks, I will make the following changes Apr 18, 2022 at 12:12
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    Hehe, seems like your edits brought in both ideas—the idea of quickly understanding a rhythm, and the idea of playing it with precise timing even when you know what it should be. It seems your main focus is the first idea, so the duplicate of this question would be Tools to improve sight-reading of rhythms. for precision, see ["Is it possible to play an exact rhythm"]. ... Apr 18, 2022 at 13:06

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Some general tips about sight reading:

  • Play slowly. How slowly? At a tempo that allows you to play accurately, or at least with minimal mistakes.
  • Choose music appropriate for your current level. You will need to invest some time into finding the right music. My suggestion is to start looking at imslp.org. If you are working in a "classical" style, IMO the simple exercise collections of Czerny are one of the best resources.
  • Concentrate on not stopping and not replaying when you make a mistake. Try to keep a steady tempo and keep going, and reapply point number one to make sure you aren't trying to play too fast.
  • While not specifically about rhythm, make sure your fingering technique is good. If you're sight reading, you want your eyes on the page, and if your eyes stay on the page, they aren't looking at your hands. If your fingering technique is good, you won't need to look at your hands constantly, and that will allow you to concentrate on the page of music... including the rhythms.
  • For piano music separate the hands. Sight read right hand only first, then left hand only, then try both together. Obviously this wouldn't be a sight reading test, but it's a way to build up your skill gradually.

Specifically about rhythm...

  • Spend some time with basic rhythm exercises away from actual sight reading. You can play little scale/chord patterns at the piano for those exercises, if you like, or you can simply pat your two hands on your lap.
  • Think about categories of beat subdivision: even subdivision, dotted rhythms, division by three (triplets), and syncopation. Each has a different "feel." Practice and count each type separately. And then as you get the feel of each try switching between them to "feel" the contrast of rhythms.
  • Count beats out loud as you play and practice. Do this with everything, sight readying, scale practice, etc.

I find it difficult to play different note durations...A quarter note with two sixteenth notes next to it...right now I am just "guessing" the rhythms...

That is a simple rhythm. If it's hard for you to play, that's fine, that's your current level. But I think it suggests you need to work on basic rhythm exercises away from sight reading. If you can't count mixed durations like that, how can you expect to sight read them? You don't need to stop working on sight reading, but put in extra time on rhythm exercises, and maybe lessen the time on sight reading until you sharpen your basic rhythm skills. There are many books devoted to the topic. Most of them take a progressive approach from easy to hard.

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    @AmanKaushik This hits the themes that I'm planning to add to the two duplicate questions: 1) "scaffold your learning"—that is, build bit by bit on what you already know—2) decontextualize (practice rhythms in ways that isolate and simplify them) and 3) contextualize (sometimes the challenge is in the "real-world" ways they're used, so don't forget to practice those too) Apr 18, 2022 at 13:31
  • Thank you for putting in so much effort to answer my question! I can't thank you enough! Apr 19, 2022 at 10:43
  • @AndyBonner Thanks, I will definitely do all of that Apr 19, 2022 at 10:44
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The secret is pattern recognition. For most musical styles, there are at maximum few dozens rhythmic patterns. Once you are familiar with the style, you should be able to recognize these as well as common melody and chord patterns at a glance. When you're sight reading you should also be reading a bit ahead of what you are playing so you have some time for thinking if something unfamiliar comes along. So unfortunately it boils down to "practice".

Regarding Beethoven, Wikipedia mentions that "Ludwig van Beethoven was perhaps the first notable composer to indicate specific metronome markings in his music. This was done in 1815, with the corrected copy of the score of the Cantata op. 112 containing Beethoven's first metronome mark". Those without metronome practiced the same way as now: counting in their head, tapping a foot, counting with fingers or something similar. In classical music maintaining a strictly constant tempo is frowned upon anyway.

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  • Yes, pattern recognition! Not any sort of instantaneous cerebral analysis. :) Apr 17, 2022 at 19:54
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    Huh, I thought the only places in classical music where maintaining a strictly constant tempo is frowned upon are in gradual tempo changes (e.g. ritardando, rallentando, accelerando) and in rubato.
    – Dekkadeci
    Apr 18, 2022 at 3:24
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    We seem to have had different exam boards.
    – ojs
    Apr 18, 2022 at 6:40
  • That's true, what practice do you recommend for accomplishing that? Apr 18, 2022 at 12:22
  • @AmanKaushik the other answer by Michael Curtis and comment under it are excellent. But pay attention that the Czerny pieces will teach you classical style, so if you want to play pop, latin or jazz there's some learning when you switch genres.
    – ojs
    Apr 18, 2022 at 13:38
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Sight reading with good rhythm is not easy because the mere fact that the music is unfamiliar tends to make you want to focus on small details and play slowly. If you do focus on details and play slowly, you are no longer sight reading; "focusing on small details and playing slowly" equals "learning the music". When you call it "sight reading", that term can only mean immediately performing the music rather than taking time to learn it - i.e. sight reading requires you to play at or near a suitable speed for a concert.

One very good way to make sure you are sight reading, and not simply learning new music, is to play along with someone who already plays or sings the music confidently. Perhaps the best of all is being part of a group that has a leader or conductor - they won't stop if you get lost, because it's boring and irritating to interrupt every time someone makes a mistake. Being forced to keep up, and not having a chance to stop or slow down, is IMO the real key to sight reading.

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  • ahh, this makes sense... thanks for answering! Apr 19, 2022 at 10:45
  • That's weird - I was taught (for Royal Conservatory of Music exam boards) to sight-read at half tempo.
    – Dekkadeci
    Apr 19, 2022 at 12:54
  • Going at a slower speed is fine, if that's an option.
    – David R
    Aug 17, 2022 at 2:30
  • In Royal Conservatory exams (and other similar ones), the sight reading test is an artificial game. Following a good teacher's advice about how to win that game is a smart move, for the purpose of your exam. But real sight reading is quite a different thing from the exam game, and to improve your real sight reading, it really does help to be forced to keep up - even if you're being forced to keep up with only half speed. (If they're at half speed and you still can't keep up, it means choose easier music for now.)
    – David R
    Aug 17, 2022 at 2:41

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