You often hear this at the end of songs when the lyrics end and it becomes a 'wall of sound' for want of a better term. Here's an example:
Here's another example:
It's very common in live music.
Does it have a musical name?
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These could be in line with what Brad Osborn coined "terminally climactic forms" in this article. He states that a TCF is
not a chorus but a single, thematically independent section placed at the end [that] functions as the song's most memorable moment. (23)
Although an ascending chromatic scale is not a requirement in a TCF, Osborn does state that these climaxes often include, among other things, the highest and/or lowest pitches in the song. As such, an ascending chromatic scale is simply one manifestation of this standard parameter of the TCF that helps make it so memorable.
I invite anyone interested in this to read the article. Brad's a terrific scholar, and it's some great research.