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The image above (from Korean composer Byung Dong Paik's Theory of Harmonics, page 139) shows progressions 7th chords(I7), and inversion

The book explains that such a process on the second image cannot be done as follows.

"The 7th note in minor loses the function of the leading note and tends to descend. For this reason, it is impossible to proceed with the 7th note as a leading note after preparing it."

It seems to be saying that the leading note from v is not resolved in i34 and becomes the 7th note, so it cannot proceed.

However, there are cases where the 7th is not resolved and stays in place and is resolved in the next chord.

D-F-A-C(ii7) -> E-C-G-C(I6) -> G-D-G-B(V) -> C-E-G-C(I) <-- like this..

As in the case above, the resolution of the 7th can be delayed, but why is it that it is impossible to delay the resolution of leading note?

It focuses on the commonality that notes that need to be resolved can stay and be resolved. So the final question is why C in ii7 (case on the text) can stay and be resolved and B in V (case on the image) cannot?

  • What 7th is delayed in your example? The C in the ii7 chord? That's not a leading tone. The B in the V chord? That's not delayed.
    – Aaron
    Commented Aug 13, 2022 at 4:47
  • @aaron yes C in the ii7 . and it's not about leading tone. It just meant that in that case it could be delayed, and why the leading tone couldn't be delayed like this.
    – guss2222
    Commented Aug 13, 2022 at 5:00
  • Well, first of all, notice that the C still resolves downward, and second of all, there is no leading tone in minor.
    – Aaron
    Commented Aug 13, 2022 at 5:02
  • @aaron there is no leading tone in minor. <-- i know!
    – guss2222
    Commented Aug 13, 2022 at 5:04
  • @aaron C resolves downward, but delayed i mean
    – guss2222
    Commented Aug 13, 2022 at 5:05

1 Answer 1


The book does not claim that the resolution cannot be delayed. It's perfectly fine to delay the resolution of the chordal seventh (the Bb) in the i43 chord. The book means that when the resolution happens, delayed or not, the note will resolve downward.

  • I think you didn't understand my question.
    – guss2222
    Commented Aug 13, 2022 at 5:01
  • The note can be delayed; it just can't proceed "as a leading tone", meaning it can't proceed upward. It can be delayed, but it will still resolve downward.
    – Aaron
    Commented Aug 13, 2022 at 5:04
  • You mean that the leading note in the minor should go down, but the example in the text goes up and it is the 7th note, so it's impossible?
    – guss2222
    Commented Aug 13, 2022 at 5:07
  • @guss2222 "the leading note in the minor" is meaningless: minor has no leading tone. The example in the text does not go up. It stays on the same pitch: Bb.
    – Aaron
    Commented Aug 13, 2022 at 5:10
  • yeah I misunderstood the sentence, but I understand the concept. and It's a tiring point. And I know it stays, but when I say ascend, I mean the C in the other voice.
    – guss2222
    Commented Aug 13, 2022 at 5:14

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