The example that brought this to mind is Lindsey Stirling's "Darkside". At the beginning of the song, plucked notes are played on what we later find out is on the third triplets, but we have no "context" to let us know that and it sounds like it's actually just on the beat. Only a little later in the song does the actual beat one of the song get revealed, and we realize that the intro was actually not on one.
I'm aware of the term "syncopation" for notes that are not on the beat, I know that applies here. My question is more specifically to the phenomenon of a "fake beat" or basically "pulling out the rug" from someone on where beat one is. Or is that the best general term there is?
I also stumbled on the term "metric modulation" from this answer but it doesn't feel quite right, since the time signature itself isn't changing, just how we hear it.