I'm struggling and my professor suggested I try Artusi. This isn't homework. I'm trying to learn about 7th chords and I'm stuck on this problem in Artusi:

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From the picture above, I'm thinking both the leading tone and the seventh is the note B-flat. Unfortunately, the Artusi hint is telling me that the leading tone of measure one must resolve upward and the seventh of the same measure must resolve down.

I don't think a single note can go up and down at the same time, so surely I'm confusing my 7th with my leading tone or vice-versa.

I did glance over the accompanying Artusi chapter, but I only saw an explanation of how intervals of two notes resolved. I get those exercises right, but the minute I try to resolve 7th chords, my brain goes into overload.

What am I doing wrong here?

FWIW: If b-flat really was the leading tone in measure one, I would have it going up to a C in measure two.

  • With appologies, I found the following after asking this question: "When resolving a dominant 7th chord, how do the 7th & leading tone function?" - Lani Allen, Colton Taresh, Peter Biro, et al. quora.com/…
    – Shawn Eary
    Nov 29, 2022 at 0:19

1 Answer 1


By "7th," the software means the chordal seventh (i.e., the seventh if the chord).

The leading tone is scale-degree 7, measured from the tonic of the key. In F, the leading tone is E.

The chordal seventh, however, is measured from the root of the current chord. Since the current chord is V7, the root is C, meaning the chordal seventh is B♭.

In short, E is the leading tone and should resolve up by step to F when in an outer voice. B♭ is the chordal seventh and should resolve down by step to A (or A♭ in F minor).

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