I'm pretty new to all this and I have a RODE NT 1A condenser microphone and an old Saffire PRO 24 DSP audio interface. I've connected the interface to my computer using firewire and a Pcie express card. I tried connecting the microphone to the interface using a XLR to TRS cable because it doesn't have any XLR inputs. However, that doesn't work. Is it true that a 1/4 connector can't provide phantom power? I really hope someone can show me a way to make it work.
The Rode needs phantom.
The Saffire can supply phantom, on XLR.
Nothing is built to run phantom along a TS/TRS jack, because the chances of shorting the socket or accidentally sending it to something that will be destroyed by 48v are far too high to risk it.
Therefore, phantom runs on XLR > XLR only.
All you need is the right cable [already supplied in the kit you linked]. The XLR>TRS in your separate link is of no use whatsoever.
The input sockets  on the Saffire will accept either jack [probably mono TS, not TRS] or XLR. Because of the voltage concerns mentioned, it will not send phantom up the jack line, only the XLR.
Yes it’s true that a 1/4" input will not provide phantom power. We want it this way because phantom power on 1/4" cables is dangerous for the power supply and devices. A 1/4" connector can be momentarily shorted when plugging or unplugging it.
An XLR maintains each contact at a fixed distance and cannot be plugged in incorrectly, so there’s no danger of a short on XLR cables.
As mentioned elsewhere, you can actually use XLR cables with your interface. That’s because your interface has combo connectors that can accept either 1/4" or XLR cables on the same connector. They don’t exactly look like either kind of connector, so it’s reasonable to have missed the XLR capability. Simply get and XLR cable and you should be fine.