Whenever I search on the internet for chords, google spits out things such as "guitar chords" or "best chords for piano".
But isn't it that such chords would be good for any instrument?
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It's not so much the chords themselves as the voicing.
You can voice a chord open or closed on a piano - play all the notes close together or spread them as far as two hands can reach.
A guitar, on the other hand, is hard to voice very closely in some circumstances.
Imagine you want to play a simple 3-note C major chord.
This is easy on both piano and guitar. Guitar you could voice quite simply with 3rd fret on A, 2nd fret on D & open string G.
Now, what if you wanted to play C Maj add 2. That's a lovely sound on a piano.
On piano you can just press the D as well, it's right there between two of the notes you're already playing and you can reach easily.
On guitar, you will really struggle. You're already using the D string for your E, so where do you find another D? There's one on the E string, but it's right up at the 10th fret. You could try to re-shape the chord to start on the C on the 8th fret, meaning you could reach a D on the A string, but your E is miles away…
The only realistic way to play it on guitar is to add it an octave up - 3rd fret, B string.
But then it sounds more like a C maj add9. A perfectly valid chord, but it doesn't have the same feel as the simple add2 on piano.
To extend this concept [as mentioned elsewhere] if you wanted to use these voicings on any other instrument, especially instruments that are essentially monophonic, you would need multiple players. That doesn't make it impossible, just needs more coordination.
If you had a full string section, you could choose whether to voice close or spread, in effect removing the limitations of any one instrument. In those cases, then your choice of voicing comes down to which you think sounds best, because all voicings are possible.
BTW, if you are looking specifically for piano music, use "score" in your search term. For guitar use "tab". If you want a leadsheet only [melody plus just the names of chords without specific voicings], try "fake book".
Problem is, there are not that many instruments which can actually play chords. Chords are variously described as two/three or more notes played simultaneously. Two note 'chords' called dyads, three notes triads, and on some instruments, many more notes can sound at the same time.
Piano, keyboard, organ and harp are obvious candidates for playing multiple notes. Guitar up to six, but instruments such as violins only two. On their own. Yes, there are those who argue more, but generally speaking two is it.
Wind instruments are designed to play single notes, although again, it could be argued that they could produce two simultaneously. There again, there's a strong camp which disagrees that a dyad is actually a chord in any case.
So, really, the question is being asked using false premises, as there are so few instruments which can actually play chords in any case. Those which are single note players (there's probably a word for that) are obviously capable of playing arpeggios - broken chords, where the chords are split into single notes played in quick succession can do just that, but are they playing chords per se? I'd say no.
Many good answers already. There's the practicality that favours particular voicings for particular instrument (ranges).
However, the instrument also influences what sounds well. This has everything to do with (differences in) overtones.
For example, I find myself playing (way) less chord extensions on a Hammond organ than when playing a grand piano. All the overtones of the organ quickly create "jarring" friction in a way that the piano doesn't. Of course, this is the same reason why a simple dom6/9 (dom13) can be so crunchy on an organ.
Similar effects happen with other instrument (families). There's a reason that close harmony voicing work so well with sax sections, and strings often play very wide voicings with octaves doubled on top etc.
But isn't it that such chords would be good for any instrument?
Piano (rather, keyboard instruments generally) and guitar are the most popular readily accessible instruments allowing a single person to play chords. They are also the primary instruments used for realizing harmonic accompaniments from lead sheets.
Furthermore, a lead sheet gives minimal information about voicing (mentioned in another answer) and is usable by any instrument.
Any chordal instrument can use a set of chords regardless of whether they're called "guitar" chords or "piano" chords. The only thing that is specific to a particular instrument is the fingering symbols that sometimes accompany guitar chords; these will be different for differently tuned instruments (including guitars tuned otherwise than in standard tuning).
So people offering chords on the internet use these labels because most people looking to find chords for a song are probably going to be playing it on piano or guitar, and if they're going to be using another instrument instead they know that it doesn't matter.
Just a little insight from a Bass Guitar player:
While I agree that all chords should be suitable to any instrument, sometimes it's not the case due to the way they are built or the role of instruments in an ensemble.
For a Bass, if any 2 notes chords will sound fine, and can be used as highlights in a line, most 3+ notes chords will just sound awfully, even when there is twice the same note at an octave difference. This is due to the nature of the instrument, there is a lot of sympathy on a Bass due to the lower tone (other strings with the same note or closely related harmonics that you are not playing will start to vibrate along), because there is more physical energy in the string vibration. In a chord, vibrations will start interacting with each other strongly, causing messy noises. The instrument is just not really designed for this.
Also, there is the role of the instrument in an ensemble, the role of the Bass is to be the "glue" between the others, between the drums and the melody. In many musical genres, it is "hidden" behind, mainly here to be felt as a groove more than heard. To achieve this, the part is usually simpler, if you add too many notes, it often only add noise to the whole thing, it makes it messy. So you don't usually play chords because it can easily ruin the balance of the ensemble. One 2 note chord at a specific timing can enhance things, but usually not more than that.
No. Chords do not only sound good on specific instruments. Chords can sound good by any instrument capable of making a chord or a combination of instruments that are capable of playing only single notes. By definition a chord is two or more harmonic notes being played simultaneously.
A search online for chords will result in a tremendous amount of sources for guitar and piano (keyboard) chord shapes. The same notes for those chords can be played by other instruments or a group of instruments and sound good.
The band Incubus may be of some interest to you. It's guitarist Mike Einziger went on a search to find chords that are especially suited to the electric guitar. You may find his sound interesting. This coupled with tasteful use of a volume pedal was what the bands sound. It is interesting in how he used chords you would typically associate with Jazz in a rock band.
There is the very edge case of instrument not tuned in equal temperament. On these instruments you may find chords that sound very good in one temperament that will not work at all on another instrument tuned to a different temperament.
As I understand it, the equal temperament was invented to make chords sound equally (bad some say) regardless of which base key was used. In many older temperaments you could not play in equally well ;-) in all keys.