As the title says, I’m looking for some information on the history of how the Major Mode (Scale,Key) was developed/designed. I already know a little bit, that is, I am not completely new to the topic, but I wanted to develop a better understanding of how we arrived at the Major Mode. Specifically the history, and the theory behind how it was developed/designed. I notice there is some nuance to it. Some theorist say it comes from the overtone series.
This link says it can be derived from the major chord and the major chords above and below it, which is also touched on by Schoenberg. I'm wondering if anyone knows of any other theorists discoveries, such as that of Ptolemy and Zarlino, about the Major Mode & Minor Mode. And to expand on that, about the development/design of chords (tetrachords, hexachords etc), & modes in general. I'd appreciate answers with references, so I can do further researching. I have a large collection of books, as I like to have all of the valuable information in print.
Thank you in advance!