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I am learning to play the piano and read music; I have only just started and so I apologise upfront if the question I am about to ask is a completely dumb one.

I was skimming through some sheet music for the Chopin Waltz in C# Minor Op. 64, No. 2 and I was wondering how one can tell that the C in the chord in the second bar is a C# and not just a C natural?

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I would appreciate any help that you can give me please.

Thanks very much in advance.

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The clue's in the title. The key of 4 sharps puts the key as in C♯ minor, so any C note in any octave will be sharp. As stated in the key signature itself, the C sharp notated there will represent all the c notes in all octaves, unless tempered with an accidental note before it. And, as Andy says, that's in the 1sst bar, as the bit before doesn't count as a full bar - only an anacrucis.

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