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When learning music theory, I keep hearing the terminology of, for example, a quarter note in a piece of music in 4/4 time "getting the beat". What exactly does this mean?

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It simply means that the quarter note is the unit of measurement, or one beat. So 4/4 means 4 quarter notes per bar. “gets the beat” is the same as “equals one beat”.

There are some exceptions, mainly compound time such as 6/8 or 12/8, when three notes are grouped together to form one beat. This usually happens with smaller increments, eighth notes or smaller. In those cases 6/8 is 2 beats of 3 eighth notes each and 12/8 is 4 beats of 3 eighth notes each.

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It means "represents, in notation, the beat".

The music you're studying has an ongoing, steady pulse to it, like a clock. The speed of that pulse, that clock, is represented by some note — often a quarter note or eighth note — and all other musical durations are relative to that.

Let's imagine some music with 60 beats each minute — one beat per second. If the "quarter note gets the beat", then a quarter note in the notation will last for one second, and and eighth note will last a half-second. If the "eighth note gets the beat", then each eighth note will last for one second, and a quarter note will last two seconds.

There are many posts on this site about how to understand time signatures and their relationship to music notation and other aspects of music. Here are a few to get you started:

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