No.For example, in Cmaj., the G is dominant, so pushes towards the tonic, C. When you play in, say, Aeolian, the tonic isn't C any more, it's A. So the original dominant, G, doesn't have that same push, as the gravitational pull needs to be towards A. So, as the dominant of A is E, that becomes the new dominant.
However, in minor, the dominant is not so pushy if it's minor itself. That's why suddenly a G# appears so often in that E chord, making it a leading note to get to Am.
Consider D Dorian. The D is now the tonic, home place, so the Am is its dominant. Same scenario as the Am bit. F Lydian is simpler, as the dominant of that (major) is major anyhow.Hence my answer - no.
Sometimes - especially to me, whatever mode a piece is in, it feels like it could/should gravitate to C, but it won't/can't unless the dominant of C pushes it. Merely going from any other diatonic chord to C doesn't seem to say 'it's ended now',although, as I say, it sometimes feels it needs to finish on a C, even if it's totally modal.
Further, looking at your title - minor scale chord substitution, taking C major notes, or modes, we could be in A minor, where, Am is tonic Dm is sub-dominant and Em is dominant, as alluded to earlier. Thus, the original supertonic D is now sub-dominant.