All simile marks basically say the same thing which is play what you just played. The only thing that typically changes from simile to simile is how much you play. With a single simile you would only play one note/chord, but the others take groups of notes or measures. The breakdown of all the similes in your post are as follows:
- Single - play last notated note/chord
- Double - play the last notated figure (typically one beat)
- Multi - play the last notated figure (typically two beats)
- Measure Repeat - play the last notated measure
- Multi-Measure Repeat - play the last two notated measures
In scores for full bands and lead sheets, similes can be used in a slightly different way for instruments that play chords as seen in the picture below:
The first measure has simile-like notes that show note hits and duration, but no actual pitches. The player would play the chord denoted above their staff, but the voicing is up to the musicians. I'm not sure about the proper name for this notation, but Finale calls it rhythmic notation. The other 3 measures have a slash for each beat in the measure. This says play the last noted rhythmic pattern. The chords may change as seen in the third measure, but the rhythm stays the same. Again I'm not sure about the proper name for this notation, but Finale calls it slash notation.