I'd like to learn the names of the different parts of modern music. I know there are verse and chorus, solo parts where only a certain instrument or the vocal can be heard, but what are the rest?
I don't pretend that this classification is absolute truth and applicable to any modern composition, but still.
Majority of the modern songs have:
- bridge (1 or more)
Intro in many senses is like a prologue in a literature. Outro is like an epilogue. Solos usually go into bridges. Maybe this will give you an inspiration. :)
And now forget everything that i've said: creativity in many cases is about stepping out of canon.
P.S. If you are interested in composition styles consider composing styles that are somewhere between classical and modern.
I personally like symphonic (power) metal and symphonic rock a lot. One of the reasons is exactly that two very different styles meet and excellent synergy emerges. Nightwish is a good example because it's composer and keyboardist Tuomas Holopainen got boring classical music education while he became interested in metal (Metallica, particularly).
For example, consider Nightwish's "The Poet And The Pendulum" and "Song Of Myself". It has several "parts". It's hard to classify each "part" as chorus, verse, etc. Also they are very different. They are a kind of "subsongs". In many senses this mimics composition of literary work. Some people like this approach, some - don't, but it definitely has right to exist and worth considering.