Are there general rules or tips on how to organize VSTs? (...) I would like to know if there's a way to arrange VSTs properly, so that every plugin uses its full potential.
There's no correct order. It's all about preference, what you want to achieve, and the context.
You'll find a lot of suggestions, like putting time-based effects (like delay or reverb) at the end , and compressors at the start. These make a lot of sense in some scenarios, but shouldn't be taken as absolute rules.
This page, for example, suggests this order:
filter -> dynamics -> distortion -> eq -> pitch -> modulation -> gain -> time
This page suggests this order:
utility -> filters -> intelligent processor -> dynamics -> gain -> time ->
Both are very similar. That pattern is very common for electric guitars (and it's the most commonly recommended pattern), but what about other contexts?
In mastering, if you are going for 0dBFS, you definitely want the limiter at the very end of the chain, so it would be a big mistake to implement this pattern there. In mixing you will want some processes in parallel rather than in series (more on that later), and you might want to compress and eq each effect separately. For synths it's very common to put a filter at or near the end of the chain, after distortion. Guitarists break that pattern all the time.
Stop thinking about "what's correct". If you have a sound in mind, start thinking about what you need to achieve it. If you are not sure or you are experimenting, switch the order of things and see what you like most.
Another important thing to consider is not only the order, but the way you are chaining everything. You can go in series or parallel. In series you connect the output of one effect to the input of the other. In parallel you send the signal to two (or more) effects to process it separately.
How does the order affect the sound exactly?
One effect will process what the previous one feeds to it. Think about a gain and wave shaper chain. With the gain before the wave shaper, the gain will also control how much the signal is distorted, it is also functioning as a "wave shaper amount". With the gain after the wave shaper you only control the volume of the output of the wave shaper, the gain can't affect the amount of distortion induced by the wave shaper.
Or think about a pitch corrector and a pitch shifter. If you put the corrector before the shifter then you can go wherever you want with the shifter, but if you put the corrector after the shifter the corrector will try to correct whatever you are doing with the shifter, will try to put the frequency of the signal where it thinks it should be.
To know what will happen, you also need to know what the effects do. Once you know exactly what the effects do, then knowing what your chain is doing becomes easier. Your chain and order is explicitly and literally telling you "I'm doing this, then that, then that, and finally that".
How about track folders, as they already add an effect on all the sub-tracks?
It's pretty much the same. The only difference is that you are feeding the sum of all those tracks to the effects chain, instead of one just track.
Why does pedal order matter?
Where to apply my effects pedal?
Where should I put delay pedal, before reverb or after?