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I have read a lot of advice on how to mix live performances and recording of bands. I have learned about making sure instruments are isolated in their frequency ranges during performances so that each is audible.

However I do not know how I can apply this to a studio rehearsal environment. e.g. in rehearsal there may be two guitarists, a bass player with their own amplifiers, a drummer and a vocalist amplified by a PA system.

I don't know of a way to ensure that the frequencies are isolated.

What are the practical steps or tools I can use to ensure that each instrument can be heard?

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In band rehearsal, the mix typically isn't really good anywhere in the room. And it needn't be, because since everybody has their own amp, there's very good spatial separation. Which is almost as useful as frequency separation for making everything audible. To fully exploit this, make sure everybody hears everybody else from a different direction, i.e. place no two amps too close.

Apart from that, of course nobody should be so loud that they grossly overpower everybody else. Everybody should hear themselves a bit better than the others, to prevent the "more me, must go louder!" impetus. It's particularly helpful to place cabinets / PA speakers close to the ear of who uses the thing as their monitor, i.e. no small amps blasting the guitarist's feet...
In particular for bass, it often helps to put the amp a bit further away: when standing right before the amp, you can feel it a lot, but don't hear much at all.

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