Does there exist literature examining the particular psychological/emotional role/reputation of each chord in a movement? (For example, I am currently infatuated with IVmaj7, which is to say I find myself more and more crafting hooks that depend heavily on this chord, and wish to understand better historic thinking on things like this.)
Try Twentieth-Century Harmony: Creative Aspects and Practice by Vincent Persichetti. While it is not based on functional harmony, it has a section that specifically addresses the sounds made by combining different triads, as well as tetrachords, and it gives literal descriptions of how these chords "sound" ("acidic" and other descriptive adjectives).
Also, if you want to go back far enough, Plato and Aristotle (c. 350 BC) wrote treatises on the effect of harmoniai on a person's mood/personality/character. You might find it funny that the Lydian mode (referring to your IVmaj7 chord) was discouraged!
Music has not always been written with chords in mind. Throughout history, there have been different relationships between notes that formed stylistic zeitgeists that we now think of as musical periods.
Historically, there have been certain chord progressions that have been common, but few composers wrote toward a specific progression; the way much contemporary popular music is written now. Other composers, such as Richard Wagner and Hector Berlioz, used individual musical motifs to provide coherence in their music.
Much like literary language changes over time, so too does musical language.
It sounds like you are using your IVmaj7 more like a Imaj7. You should think about relabeling your chords so you are landing on a Imaj7. This will change the function of your other chords and will help you have a clearer understanding of your language.
"...the particular role/reputation of each chord in a movement..."
The key term you're looking for here is functional harmony. In a typical harmonic analysis, you determine what the chords are in terms of their root (e.g. 4th scale degree) and their quality (e.g. major chord, with a major 7th) to determine the name of the chord (e.g. IVmaj7). In functional harmony, you then analyze this chord in its placement within a progression to determine it's function. Chords are assigned one of the following functions: Tonic, Dominant, or Predominant (also called Subdominant), sometimes abbreviated by the initial letter. Many chord progressions can then be analyzed in terms of representing P->D->T.
As an example, some common D chords include not just V, but also V7, V9, viidim7, and ♭II7. Some common P chords include IV, IVmaj7, iv, ii, and ii7. Thus P->D->T encompasses not just the common IV-V-I, but also things like ii7-♭II7-Imaj7, or even IV-V-vi (which could also be seen, in the relative key, as ♭VI-♭VII-i), and a wide variety of other progressions.
There lot's of information out there on functional harmony. Here's one page to get you started.
Edit: Reading your comment about Analyzing Bach Cantatas, I realize this probably won't give you exactly what you want, because such associations are (as you admit) largely subjective. However, it will give you a framework for understanding these types progressions.