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In some of electronic music songs' parts, you can hear multiple vocals at the same time. One male, one female vocals but it's different than de-esser effects, it is like being recorded on the same song, same lyrics but you can hear one vocal like it is harmonized. An example of this would be the vocals in "Too late, all gone" by How To Destroy Angels.

My question is how can such a thing can be done, which effects, what kind of mastering / mixing / effects techniques might have been used while doing this ?

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Although they could be multiple vocal tracks as per slim's answer, there are also dedicated effects, vocal harmonic processors, that automatically reharmonize sounds including singing. The can come as dedicated effects units, e.g. the DigiTech Vocalist Live 3 , or software modules, e.g. Antares Harmony Engine Evo. Most of the units for vocal processing allow for the specification of the intended chord, rather than just having the synthesized voices being a specific interval above/below the source material.

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I believe that in this case they have simply recorded multiple vocal tracks. Each track has different effects applied - EQ, bit crunching, distortion, reverb in various combinations.

In addition, it's very likely that the vocal recordings have been chopped up into short samples and arranged in a DAW.

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For your specific example "Too late, all gone" by How To Destroy Angels, most of the vocals sound a lot like they were processed digitally from the same female vocal.

There is also a male vocal for repetition. But considering its quite limited use and different tone than the back vocals, I think that most harmonizing vocals are obtained digitally using auto harmonizers from the female vocal.

These are assumptions based on hearing, only the producer of the song can explain the real case.

Anyway, there are many plugins out there for this purpose. Look for vocal harmonizers.

About the process, mixing and mastering doesn't have to do with this technique. This is normally done during the production before mixing and mastering. But also for many electronic music mixing and producing became a simultaneous task.

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