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Given a sheet of music, how does one determine the correct fingering (p i m a) for Guitar? that is, when the fingering is not explicitly mentioned?

I know that strings (E a d) are typically plucked by the thumb (p).

Here is one instance I am confused on when playing notes on high e string. Should the fingering be (m a m a)? or should it be (i m i m)? I hear that it is not good practice to pluck the same string with the same finger twice consecutively, i.e. plucking high e string with ( m m a a).

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    You don't, really. There's often a few options depending on the previous and following notes/chords, so the preferred fingering can depend on context. Best to work with a teacher or other experienced guitarist to learn good patterns. – Carl Witthoft Feb 28 '15 at 16:20
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To an extent, it's down to personal choice. The more experienced you become, the more naturally your fingers (and thumb) will play certain strings. The rules are more general guidelines, and you may even find that using your pinky is better than another finger. A good move for repeated notes on one string is to alternate, but there are times when using something like i,m,a,i,m,a may be better for the piece than I,m,i,m,i,m for instance.

As Carl suggests, a teacher will be a good guide. Even the suggested fingerings, when present, may not be the best option for yourself. Keep playing around with alternative fingerings, and each piece will have a sort of optimum fingering for you - your own style.

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