I believe that when J. Rudess is referring to "pattern based" he is talking about describing musical phrases as a series of relative intervals, and then repeating those series of intervals from different starting pitches.
On a guitar this is straight forward to do by moving up and down the neck: play a particular passage, and then play the same arrangement of string/finger combinations again, but (for example) two frets further up the neck. The geometry of how/where the fingers are moving (relative to one another) is exactly the same, and the relative intervals between the notes is exactly the same. This is the defining feature of an "isometric keyboard" -- two keys with the same physical separation, produce two notes with the same intervallic separation.
In this sense the guitar is isomorphic in terms of moving up/down the neck, at least when no open strings are used. If it weren't for the major 3rd between the G and B strings, it would also be isomorphic to changes from string to string, which is why some people have tried "all fourths tuning" -- to make changes from
one string to another the same pitch interval, for every string.
The Axis keyboard is explicitly designed to have the feature that no matter
where you move around its surface, a given pitch interval always has the same spatial separation. This makes pattern based music, as defined above, more obvious.
Piano keyboards are not isomorphic in that as you change scales/keys, sometimes a given interval is between two white keys, and sometimes it is between a black and an white key (or the other combinations). The different physical offset of the black and white keys means you can't use the exact same physical fingering patterns to make the same intervals.
Some instruments that use isomorphic keyboard, and thus are likely to be suitable to this kind of pattern based music include
Essentially any grid-based MIDI controller (not just the Axis) could be made to be isometric, by appropriately assigning notes to keys -- but this Axis keyboard is explicitly designed with this in mind.
The Janko keyboard was an attempt to make an isomorphic piano that never took off,
More recently, there was failed effort to produce a new type of electronic instrument called thummer (or jammer) that never took off, but still has some DIY interest, and the dualo seems to be the most recent iteration of this idea
Some concertinas (Wicki-Hayden) and accordions (chromatic button accordions) use an isometric keyboard layout,
The harpejji is an isomorphic tapping instrument
One feature of pattern based playing (as defined above) is that for most phrases, and most shift intervals, you can easily get to distant (in terms of circle of fifths) keys, or imply chords that live in those distant keys. So this kind of approach is found in more artsy and conceptual music (in rock terms, progressive) and rarely used in more folk/traditional music (except for the truck driver key change).