What is the word for the entire chord progression of a song? Small sequences of harmonies are called progressions; can we also call the entire sequence of chords in a song a progression, or is there a better word?
There is no technical term for it that I know of. The only word I can think of is "changes", often used by jazz players.
Do you know the changes for "I got rhythm"? If you do, then you can comp on it or improvise on it because you know every chord, all the way through. That is, you know the entire chord progression of the song.
There's no other word for it, so that must be the word.
A lot depends on where you're starting and the theoretical conventions about harmony in the music's style.
If you have a jazz or pop lead sheet with chord symbols already written, the existing answers provide plenty of terms: chart, sheet, structure, etc.
But in many "classical" styles the harmony results from combined parts and chords aren't always clearly defined. You need to analyze the music to label what you think are the chords. In that case all the chords of the composition are the analysis of the harmony/chords. You could have the same issue in rock and other styles too. Chords aren't always presented in a obvious way like strumming guitar chords. You would need an analysis to then have all the chords.
Sorry, bit of an obvious answer, but have to mention that a common way to say it is "the chords"! I hear "the changes" all the time as well, and "harmonic structure" sometimes makes sense to use as well. But a lot of the time, the question gets asked as "hey, what are the chords to the bridge", used in the same way as the word "lyrics"!