I totally understand what you are after. When I first learned guitar, I just played the basic chords of the song with a strumming pattern that worked. My playing was okay, but I noticed that when more experienced guitar players played the same songs with the same chords, the arrangement sounded far more interesting and musical.
Eventually I discovered that the key to spicing up a basic arrangement is to add fills, licks, runs and other easy little "tricks" during the playing of a particular chord or in between chords.
Through just playing and experimenting, I learned many interesting and melodic (and easy) ways to embellish any basic chord progression and make the guitar arrangement sound more "colorful".
For example - while playing any chord, you can move one or more fingers to fret different notes that you can reach while maintaining the basic chord shape. I choose notes that go with the melody of the song (either actual melody notes or notes that harmonize with the melody).
A very common and frequently used example of this technique (probably because it is so easy to do) is while playing an open D chord in first position using XX0232 you can add your pinkie to the 3rd fret of the e string and play a Dsus4 (XX0233) then release the pinkie again to play the D chord again and then lift your finger off of the e string to play a Dsus2 (XX0230) and then back to D.
You could say that this is a sequence using 3 chords (D, Dsus4, and Dsus2). But I think of it as adding notes to a D chord because I am maintaining the basic chord shape while putting down or lifting up one finger each time I play a "different" chord.
Another way to do something like this is to use your pinkie to add a G note on the 3rd fret of the high e string while playing a regular first position open C chord.
To add even more spice to this technique, try using hammer on's and or pull off's. For example, try playing an open C chord and then lift any one finger off the fret board, play the open string and then hammer back down where you lifted your finger without striking the string again. This allows you to add two quick individual notes in succession while strumming the C chord. Often you can do this with several different fingers before moving to the next chord.
Another trick I often use is sliding a note or two (or the entire chord) up a few frets. Try this for an example. Play an open D (XX0232) then play a Dsus4 by adding your pinkie to the 3rd fret of the e string (XX0233) now slide that entire shape up two frets then back then back to the open D again.
Another way to enhance an arrangement is by playing little fills or runs while transitioning between chords. I often play a little run using hammer on's on the 2nd fret of the A and D and playing the open G string to transition between an open G chord and a C chord.
Another way to make many arrangements sound more interesting is to use bass walks between chords. For example, if you are going from a C chord to a G chord you can do a little "bass walk" from C to G by playing the notes c (third fret A string) b (second fret A string) the open a (open A string) and the g (3rd fret of low E string) before playing the G chord. I call this a "walk down". If I am going from lower notes to higher notes I call it a "walk up".
These are just a few ideas of things you can easily do to add interest and spice and make any arrangement sound more advanced and colorful. There are other similar ideas that you can discover through trial and error or by watching others play and trying to break down what they are doing and emulate them.
I am not sure there is a formula that will work to tell you what chords to use to transition from a particular chord to another chord on guitar. Even if there was - it might not be practical. I say this because, on a guitar (unlike a piano or other keyboard instrument) each chord is played completely different and some chords are difficult to play and some chords don't lend themselves well to certain type embellishments.
For example if you wanted to play a common I, IV, V progression on guitar in the key of G you can easily play G C and D and add many types of embellishments and fills and runs between those chords using many combinations of fretted and open strings that will fit with a melody in the key of G. But that same I, IV, V progression transposed down a half step to Gb means we now must play a Gb, Cb and Db chord - which don't allow for the same runs and fills and added notes to compliment the melody while playing those chords.
By the same concept, transitioning to a particular passing chord from a given chord in one key might be relatively easy. But in another key it might require an awkward shift in position that only the most acrobatic, nimble fingered, (perhaps double jointed) freaks of nature would be able to pull off.
Therefore any "formula" for passing chords or transition chords, might only be practical or useful for one or two keys (and their relevant chord set).
My recommendation is to play around with some of the ideas presented above and other ways (by watching videos or other players) to easily add notes and fills and licks and runs that fit your song either during or between the playing of the basic chords in the chord progression.
As you experiment with different ideas, you will develop a vocabulary of possible fills and licks and tricks that can work between various chords and while playing certain chords - like the D, Dsus4, Dsus2, D trick that works more often than not when the progression includes a D chord (but not so easily with other chords). As you continue to use the tricks you learn, you will eventually be able to instinctively know what is going to work in any given situation.
Good luck and enjoy the journey.