If you really want to get deep into the theory and the reasons that 12 tones "sound right", I can't recommend Harry Partch's Genesis of a New Music enough. He does have his hobbyhorse to ride on why equal temperment is bad and why we really need 43 tones to the octave, but the presentation of the bases for tuning and the twelve-note scale are detailed, clear, and very well done. It's a more mathematical treatment, but you don't have to understand much more than ratios to understand it.
His take is that we listen to many intervals that are not perfect, i.e., properly-tuned ratios of notes - exact ratios of frequencies sound purer and "sweeter" than the compromise intervals we use in equal temperment - and accept them because of the difficulty of constructing instruments which can play arbitrary intervals: the 12-note keyboard being a particular problem from his perspective.
He throws out other temperments (meantone, etc.) as making one scale perfect at the expense of all the others sounding less good, or even actively bad; his take is that we should be able to construct a full "circle-of-fifths" of scales, all of which sound as consonant as the scale based on the note we choose as the base note for our scales. Fascinating book, and well worth reading.