Is there anything like that that heavy or other kinds of violin-strings should break down the instrument?
Thicker strings (aka higher gauge strings) do exert higher tension on the instrument. On a violin they will do this in two primary directions: one is pulling the neck toward the tail piece, and the other is putting more pressure on the bridge.
I don't think having higher gauge strings will make much of a difference, but you should make sure of two things anyways:
- The neck isn't becoming really bent over time. This is unlikely to happen, and it should have some bend, but something to keep an eye on. The main thing that stops this from happening is the ebony fingerboard (so the fingerboard shouldn't be too thin). And more importantly, that the fingerboard is not separating (becoming unglued) from the neck at all.
- Your sound post is properly adjusted. If this isn't the case, the pressure from the strings can crack or dent the top piece of the violin.
You probably want to take a good violin to a luthier at least once a year.
If you have a high-quality instrument, heavy strings shouldn't damage it.
If your instrument is made out of cardboard or you're stringing it with steel power cables, things aren't so certain. Just don't do anything ridiculous; going up a gauge or two won't exceed the parameters of a decent instrument.