I personally would say growling/screaming tends to fit the heavier style of the music, but then remember that Angela Gossow (and by extension, Arch Enemy) are a very extreme and "brutal" style of metal that usually has constant growling vocals, as it's all part of the genre and sound.
If you look back across plenty of other genres of metal and rock, you'll see that a lot of bands only use heavy vocals in certain sections of songs, or sometimes not at all in certain songs, because it doesn't fit the theme or feel of the song. Take Trivium for example, a lot of their earlier music was very fast paced and heavy. Their later efforts (In Waves and Vengeance Falls specifically) have a much broader range of styles, which means that perhaps growling isn't the most appropriate way to approach singing.
I can't tell you how the style developed, but if you listen across several genres of rock and metal you'll hear the whole spectrum from the original gritty rock vocal to all out pure screaming.
Some prominent figures currently are along the lines of...
- Matt Heafy
- Corey Taylor
- Robb Flynn
- Phil Anselmo
- Spencer Sotelo
- Daniel Tompkins
... but then also there's the likes of Dave Grohl who still use that very gritty original style of rock vocals.