It's actually can be looked at modally as a chords from the Phrygian/Phrygian Dominant scales. The Phrygian scale due to its lowered third is viewed as a minor scale and thus contributes to the "sadness" you hear especially since the A would be the 3rd of the Phygian scale giving the progression a slightly more minor sound even using just major chords.
With the root of F♯, you have the following notes of the Phrygian scale:
F# G A B C# D E F#
and from the Phrygian Dominant scale you have the following notes:
F# G A# B C# D E F#
The notes in each of the chords above are:
- G major - G, B, D
- F♯ major - F♯, A♯, C♯
- A major - A, C♯, E
From the two of these scale, you have all the notes of the chords in the progressions. The progression is simply a
II I III in F♯ Phrygian with the I chord coming from Phrygian Dominant, or
bII I bIII if you prefer to look at analysis from the perspective of the major scale.