Cables differ in build, shielding quality, resistance, impedance and its constancy (admittedly, not particularly relevant for audio frequency cables at customary lengths), bendability and its effect on the cable parameters and some others. The copper inside can have different qualities.
The most audible differences may be caused by instrument cables for high impedance sources (like electric guitar) since they are rather susceptible to noise, and loudspeaker cables. For those, low resistance is rather desirable since loudspeakers usually have differing impedances for different frequencies and the output for solid state amplifiers is defined via its voltage, and the loudspeakers and crossovers show capacitive and inductive behavior where they release stored energy back into the cable and the amplifier has to suck it up without it affecting the voltage and thus other loudspeakers. So considerably lower resistance than the loudspeaker impedance makes the almost-zero impedance of the amplifier work best.
As a corollary, speaker cables are less of an issue with tube power amplifiers since those have considerably higher output impedance anyway.
If you have a passive crossover network, its effects will mostly outweigh those of the cable. A long thin cable will lose energy particularly with the low frequencies, and it will cause mushier response for the high tweeters. For the rest, the crossover effects will far outweigh that of the cable. And it's quite likely that for a reasonably chosen cable, the exemplar tolerances of the speaker pairs or a pile of clothes on the floor will quite outweigh the difference between a good and a "fabulous" cable.
So yes, there are measurable and perceivable differences with speaker cables, but the high-price race happens with specs and features that are outside of that range. Their main qualities derive from pride, trust, and confidence.