In general, Dynamic Mics are the most durable. That is why they are so popular for stage use. There are some electrical soldier joints inside (connected to the diaphragm) that could potentially come loose if the mic was dropped and the metal contacts could corrode if exposed to environmental extremes or if exposed to excess moisture. Other than that they are almost indestructible - as long as you take basic precautions and don't drop or otherwise abuse them.
Condenser mics have more electronics inside the capsule and consequently are a little more fragile. Many are still used on stage, but it is important to handle them much more gently and protect them from trauma.
Ribbon Mics are the most fragile of the ones you mentioned and consequently are used more often in the studio. If used in a studio setting, they can live in a corner of the studio on a shock mount and thus not subject to the stress of packing them away and unpacking them. If they are transported, a shock resistant hard shell case is the way to go. Not a good idea to subject a ribbon mic to the rigors of stage use.
I keep my stage mics in their padded case. I also put a foam windscreen on the grill for added shock resistance during storage (I don't perform with the external windscreen unless I am outdoors). I also wrap the entire mic inside it's padded zippered case, with foam koozies. Then I put all my mics inside their respective zippered bags - into a padded shock resistance mic bag.
I always carry extra mics but I have only had one failure in my life.
EDIT: From what I have observed personally, one of the most common and egregious ways that microphones suffer crippling damaged on stage is when a microphone clipped on a mic stand does a face plant onto the stage (driven by the stand) when the stand tips over. This is most likely to happen during set up and tear down for your show.
To prevent this tragedy, follow these tips. Never put the mic in the clip on the stand until the mic cable is fastened to the stand and connected to the mixer or snake. The stand is more tippy before the cable is attached. The cable adds some counter tension and weight to the stand, especially if it's taped to the floor after it's clipped or cable tied to the stand.
Make the microphone one of the last things that get's installed during set up. When the band or crew is wandering about the stage pulling cables and moving monitors, etc, there is a greater chance someone can knock over a mic stand. If that happens, you don't want your mic to be attached to it. Also, during set up, the mic stand could be pulled over while pulling the mic cable to the mixer or when someone wandering about the stage during set up trips over the cable.
For the same reasons (stand more tippy when mic cable removed and increased activity on stage) take your mic off the stand first, at the end of the gig - and put it in it's case and mic bag immediately so it does not get tossed into someone else's gear bag by accident in the rush to get packed out.
Another thing I do with my boom mic stands (besides use a heavy stand), is use "sand bags" (which actually have lead shot in them instead of sand), to weigh down the legs of the tripod and increase stability. Be sure that you rotate the base of a tripod boom stand so that one leg and the boom are close to parallel. You can also throw a sand bag on a round base stand to add a little more stability to the base if you use a boom arm with a round (or similar non tripod) base mic stand.
If you don't want to buy sand bags you can make them yourself with lead shot or BBs and a small draw string bag (Crown Royal bags work great). I have also used leg weights or wrist weights. The doughnut shaped padded wrist weights can slip on a round base stand to add a little extra weight and stability.
Pictured below are some of the things I mentioned, as well as a padded hardshell mic case that you can buy if you carry multiple mics and don't mind spending the money.
As others have alluded to, a well made microphone, used in the manner it is intended, and properly cared for, could potentially last a lifetime, with little or no maintenance!