Two words that are often associated with "happy" or "cheerful" would be "harmonious" and "upbeat".
In Western music, we tend to associate major keys with happy and minor keys with sad. This song also resolves back to the root chord or "home" which makes us happy or makes us feel good. So you could describe this type of chord progression as "harmonious".
A possible explanation for why major chords evoke a happier mood is that they are formed with the most consonant and natural sounding intervals. In additions - major chords are also comprised of the most prevalent notes in the overtone series related to the root of the chord.
Also, fast tempos are more "upbeat" which is why the word upbeat is associated with happy. "Up tempo" is usually associated with a feel good mood.
In the example given, other elements of the arrangement contribute to the happy/ good feeling as well. The percussion and lyrics and melody are all up tempo, upbeat, and suggest an energetic feeling of excitement!
That's my take. Other's may have more to add.
FWIW - I have found that drummers make great guitar players. Enjoy your new journey towards becoming a guitarist!