I've been completing practice exams online for Grade 5 theory and I'm struggling with some of the cadence questions. I feel that, without the use of inversions, you reach a dead end. The questions normally take the form:
"In four-part vocal style, harmonise the notes under each of the four brackets with a cadence and an approach chord. The passage includes modulation to related keys. Show one examle of each of the four principal cadences."
An example of a question looks something like this:
This isn't the full question, but it would be helpful to know how to harmonise the second cadence. Because there is an E natural, I know that it must be in either D minor or F major (modulation is to related keys, tonic major is Bb major). So first I tried D minor. In D minor, E natural is only present in in chord ii and chord vii (chord vii can't be used in a principal cadence). But, I'm not allowed to use ii in a minor key, so I can't use chord ii as E natural is the bass note. The D (the next note) is present in I and and vi, none of which can be used to make a principal cadence following a ii chord. Next I tried F major. For F major, E natural is only present in chord V and vii (chord vii can't be used in a principal cadence). For chord V, E natural as a bass note would make it an inversion. The next note, D, is in the vi chord.
My question is, does a movement from Vb-vi count as a cadence? Also, is there something I haven't thought of, which is just glaringly obvious!
Thanks so much!