Your enthusiasm and ambition are admirable, and these traits will be invaluable, and even necessary, as you progress. Great and unimaginable things are accomplished this way.
However, this isn't one of those times. It may seem contradictory to you now, but the best and fastest way to "learn to play" this piece is to not play it at all at this point in your development. Something else that may not make sense to you now is the fact that even if you were to fully annotate this piece and learn to actually play the notes, what you will have achieved is something far short of learning to play this piece. Similar to Sam's analogy, your accomplishment then will be the equivalent of someone who doesn't read or write English learning to act the role of Hamlet by annotating each letter of the alphabet by writing the phonetic equivalents into the part, and then "reading" from those annotations. You won't have the vocabulary, pronunciation, and grammar, much less the meaning of all of that or the oratorical mechanics of being an actor. At best, after a very long ordeal, you will learn to play the actual notes, at a fraction of the required speed, and without awareness of the musical meaning behind the notes. You will not have learned to play this piece any more than you will have learned to play or understand Hamlet in the other example, and this process will not have helped you to learn the mechanics of either.
Furthermore, the notes and chords you're trying to analyze have meaning in the same way words have meaning. There is more to understanding and performing music than playing the notes, similar to how playing Hamlet requires far more than learning 26 letters and correctly labeling the play's words with those phonetic annotations. I wonder if your thought process went something like this: I want to learn how to read music better, and I also like this Liszt, so why can't I learn to do both by starting at the end and working backwards? Or something like that? I still remember thinking like that, and it made perfect sense to me at the time. I learned the hard way, and the long way, that that is the longest path imaginable to achieve both. Also, something that isn't obvious to a beginner is that playing music is not so much about playing individual notes. Just as when you read English you read by entire words and phrases, you don't read music note by note. You recognize the patterns (chords, arpeggios, scales, harmonic progressions, etc.) that you've already practiced and ingrained into your fingers (muscle memory), and then you play them as logical groupings.
My best advice is to simply shed wood. There is no shortcut here. Flash cards are great. There are even digital flash cards (Anki) that you can use on a computer or phone. Then practice reading and playing very simple pieces on the piano. This is the equivalent of learning to ride a bike. Once you get past this initial phase, everything else just gets easier. Good luck!