The premise stated in your question is quite valid. Whereas bridge placement is critical to the sound of an acoustic guitar, the electric guitar does not rely on vibration of the top (soundboard) to produce sound. Therefore you have more options for bridge placement with only ergonomics to take into account.
If you keep the scale length (distance from nut to saddle) the same so that the fret spacing is the same, then you can alter the position of the bridge by shortening the body as topo said in his comment.
You can also shorten the neck (while keeping the scale length the same) which will cause the bridge to land closer to the lower bout as on your bass. For example if you make the neck shorter by the length of 2 frets, you would push the bridge back that same distance. Many parlor acoustics where the body joins at 12th vs 14th fret have the bridge closer to the bout of the guitar.
Taylor Guitars offers their popular 812 model in both a standard 14 fret model as well as a 12 fret model. Notice how the position of the bridge changes between the two (pictured below) when the neck is shortened by two frets.
Pictures may not be same scale but you can see the shift in position of the bridge.
Electric guitar scale lengths and acoustic guitar scale lengths work exactly the same as far as fret spacing. But with electric guitars you have more options on body size and shape because the sound of the guitar is not so dependent on body design. So perhaps a combination of a shorter body and shorter neck might get your bridge where you want it while keeping the scale length the same.
Probably the easiest way to accomplish your goal (since you are custom building the guitar and mass production assembly time is not a factor) is to use Neck Through Construction where you build the body around the neck by adding wings to a neck that goes all the way to the lower bout in contrast to bolt on or set neck construction. You could start with a standard scale length and number of frets, and then cut the end of the neck off as close after the nut/bridge position as desired, and then build the body around the neck.
Here is a picture that shows the idea of neck through construction from Anarchist Guitars.
Other than those options, I think the only other thing you can do is alter the scale length. If you do that, you can use an established scale length from another guitar or you can purchase a template like the one pictured below from a place such as C.B. Gitty Crafter Supply.
Good luck building your guitar.