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Is there a term for when the melody repeats with the exact same notes (pitch and rhythm), but the harmony changes from under it?

There are examples throughout music, but I just watched some Doctor Who last night, so I'll point to the very beginning of the 11th Doctor's theme (no spoilers, this is music only):

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The term for the technique is called reharmonization and it is a very powerful composition tool. You have many, many options at your disposal when writing a harmony to go with your melody and they all give the passage a different feel and can color it quite differently. It's one of the many ways you can present familiar material like a set melody in many different lights and moods.

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