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For example, in the key of c sharp minor we would normally have a d sharp. But what if the given bass note is a d natural? How would this be notated with roman numerals and figured bass? Is it just a ii?

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    There's a lot of info missing here. Both figured bass and Roman Numeral analysis tell you the overall harmony. Just one note does not give us an idea of what the harmony is as it is just one note nor give enough to notate it. It could be a borrowed bII chord, it could be a tritone substitution, it could be a root position Neapolitan chord (although extremely odd), you could be modulating and in a different key, it could be a secondary dominant, or it could just be a non-harmonic tone. The context really matters. – Dom Sep 22 '16 at 1:24
  • Agree with Dom. also, R.N. needs more than merely a bass note, of any kind, to establish what R.N. it is. – Tim Sep 22 '16 at 8:51
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I think you are under somewhat of a misapprehension in regards to what a figured bass aims to tell you.

In essence, a figured bass tells you the underlying harmony in which the piece operates. It is very much melody agnostic and also tells you nothing about what chromaticism may have been used to make the music interesting.

It tells you the basis not anything about the beauty of the melody or the non-chord notes.

How would this be notated with roman numerals and figured bass? Is it just a ii?

It would still be the same chord with some sort of non-chordal note that acts as some sort of condiment to the main harmony, that is if it is indeed not a seventh of the chord (OR some sort of other note that can be construed as chordal.), then it would certainly affect the notation of the harmony.

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