I think I heard Bill Evans playing melodic minor with raised 4th over a Dm6/9 chord (on "I do it for your love" with Thielemans). Has anyone encountered this scale elsewhere?

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Technically speaking, it is the fourth mode of harmonic major. It is also called Lydian b3, even though it seems much more natural to refer to it the way you did: melodic minor #4.

If D is the root, it's a mode of A harmonic major:

A B C# D E F G#

However, note that especially in jazz improvisation it's not always helpful to interpret each and every note as part of a scale. Bill Evans (just like all other jazz improvisers) uses chromatic passing tones, approach notes, etc.

It would be necessary to analyze the specific melody to judge whether the raised 4 is actually a scale note or just some form of chromaticism.

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