From 15 inch Violas and larger the tuning pegs are larger than violin. The 14 inch Viola corresponds in size to the 4/4 violin, and the 13 inch to the 3/4 violin.
Tuning pegs are sold in "blanks" with the taper size large for cutting down to fit. Viola peg blanks often have "Standard" and "Thick" sizes available for the shank size as well. The head sizes change with the different size pegs.
How big the shank ends up being is different for each instrument, dependent on the manufacturer and age of the instrument. Each peg set is shaped specifically for each instrument and peg hole. Eventually with wear and/or reaming the peg holes may become too large and require filling and re-holing.
Taper size is currently standard at 1:30 ratio, and older tapers for gut string instruments may be found down to 1:20.