Andante Grazioso and Moderato are tempo indications, it also could be a name of a piece. Like Mozart's Andante in F Major K.1 or Chopin's Allegretto in F-Sharp Major. I don't know where you got Anglais from, but it's French for "English". To see more of tempo indications, go to https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tempo
The Minuet is a musical form originated from France, usually in 3/4 time. It's also a frequently used form in the Baroque Era. The Suite is not a piece but a set of pieces. Like Bach's Orchestral Suite in B Minor or Tchaikovsky's very well-known The Nutcracker Suite. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Suite_(music)
Now the Rondo. The Rondo or sometimes referred as Rondeau is usually a music form and a character type that is distinct from the form.The Rondo usually goes in the form of A-B-A, A-B-A-C-A or A-B-A-C-A-B-A. The Rondo as a character type typically refers to a fast paced music normally Allegro or Allegretto. To learn more about the Rondo, go to https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rondo
Now the Polonaise. It's usually a Polish dance musical form. Usually in 3/4 time. Johann Sebastian Bach also composed many Polonaise. But in fact, the most famous out of all the Polonaise is the Polonaise in Ab Major Op.53. See here, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polonaise
To learn more about musical forms, check this https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_musical_forms_by_era
Now Opus Numbers, Opus numbers are like Suites. In Beethoven's Piano Sonata Op.27, there are two pieces. Op.27 No.1 is in E Flat, and Op.27 No.2 is in C-Sharp Minor. It's usually an indication for a work. The Number is an indication for the number of works in an Opus number. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Opus_number
Sometimes there would be a piece named like this, Beethoven, Piano sonata No.14 Op.27 No.2. The No.14 means that the Piano Sonata is the 14th one Beethoven had composed.