Having guitar background, for me it's natural to learn the chord progression of the composition (in C-dur). But there are a few that are hard to identify for me, in the climax parts, marked by ???:

[: C   Dmi7/C G7/B  C :]
A      D7/C   G      Cmaj7/B
Ami7   D7     G7     G°7
Dmi7/F F°7    C/E    Fmaj7/E
Dmi7   G7 C   C7
Fmaj7  F#°7   ???    ???
G7     C/G    G7sus4 G7
???    C7     F/C    G7/C

measures 27 (G, E♭, B, C, E♭), 28 (A♭, F, B, C, D) and 33 (G, E♭, A, C, F♯). What chords are these?

closed as off-topic by Tim, Neil Meyer, Richard, Matthew Read Jan 9 '17 at 0:10

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The problem you are having here is that Bach isn't really working entirely chordally. The notes that are giving you trouble are non-harmonic tones introduced by his voice-leading.

In m.27 and 28, the B is first an anticipation, then a chord tone, while the C is first a chord tone, then a suspension. The underlying harmonies are second inversion C minor, then third inversion B dim. 7. It is an elaboration of the i64 - V formula.

In m. 33, the low G is a pedal point which started in m.29. The overlaying harmony is a third inversion F♯ dim. 7. Effectively, everything between m.29 and 36 is a "/G" chord. You'll notice that C forms the bass from m.37 to the end.

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