# Sheet music with no fractional time signature - how to read?

I can't read music yet, and want to know the time signatures of certain pieces of music. When the time signature isn't explicitly shown on the sheet music, how do I find out what it is?

• Time signature is almost always explicitly shown on sheet music. Anyway I find the question strange – once you properly understand what time signature is in relation to sheet music, it should also be obvious how to infer it from the bars themselves. Commented Jan 20, 2017 at 22:34
• Can you post an example of music without a time signature? Commented Jan 20, 2017 at 22:39
• @ToddWilcox, imslp.org/wiki/File:KoechlinPaysagesEtMarinesOp63.pdf. It's not that uncommon for free-flowing music. You do learn to infer the metre(s) pretty quickly.
– user16935
Commented Jan 21, 2017 at 6:03
• @ToddWilcox Erik Satie often wrote music with no time signature or even measures: imslp.org/wiki/… (see also en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Free_time_(music) for more examples) Commented Jan 21, 2017 at 6:18
• As the original question said "when it's not shown on the sheet music," I'm amazed that all the answers so far say that never happens. Of course it does: hymnbooks rarely have a time signature, for example. Commented Jan 25, 2017 at 1:44

I'm not sure why the other answers are downplaying music without time signatures.

There is none to be found on this entire page. No C or anything and C would not make sense anyway. These pieces would have to employ too many different time signatures to reflect what the composer intended.

What I do is observe the timing of not notes and try not to think about that overall time signature, since there isn't one. After you play it a few times strictly observing the timing in each bar you start to feel what the music should feel like. The omission of the time signature is not a mistake.

That being said it is likely the the OP just doesn't know about the symbols for common and cut time. It is weird that many of the answers above just say that a time signature should always be there or is always shown.

• I consider this as the default is 4/4, and the editor was to lazy to insert time signature changes as to 6/4 and back in the second bar. The example provides no example of a piece beyond the scope of time-signatures Commented Mar 5, 2017 at 15:06
• Umm I didn't want to post the entire thing because of copyright reasons. there are some with bars with 2 beats in them as well. It is only 4 lines and that happens fairly often. It is kinda silly and mean spirited to call an editor lazy because you saw one quarter of the piece that was written down in a collection of 700+ songs. Commented Mar 5, 2017 at 15:47
• No matter how many pieces of music of an editor, it is not appropriate not to write the time signature, unless it is in free time, which this is not. Guidot is completely reasonable here. Commented Apr 12, 2017 at 22:55
• It is completely appropriate in this praxis, and common, and done for good reasons. Commented Oct 27, 2022 at 14:46

A lot of comments aren't addressing this, but if a piece actually has no time signature (not a C, because that would be 4/4, but actually no marking there) then that is called 'Free Time'. In free time, there is no meter and you can let the piece flow. There's no rules as to which notes are accented, such as in other time signatures. It's very interpretive, and there's generally no bar lines either.

Edit: Aaaaand I just realised I'm five years late to this convo. Oh well, my point still stands.

• I think you’ve added valuable information. I was very recently singing a piece with no time signature AND it was conducted, so we couldn’t exactly let it flow. In my head I counted a beat for each quarter note value and then we followed the conductor’s hand motions to stay together. It requires a great conductor who can very well outline the flow with their hands. Commented Oct 27, 2022 at 12:17

I've never seen a piece of music without a time signature. If it doesn't have a number over a number, it has some form of a C. Since I'm not sure exactly what your asking or what kind of music you're looking at, I've separated this answer into 3 parts.

Ways to write time signatures that aren't normal:

A plain `C` means "common time," or 4/4 (as noted above by neilfein.)

A `C` with a vertical cross through it (much like a cent sign) means "cut time," or 2/2 (also called "alla breve" by smart people ;-P).

A time signature is a fraction. It describes the whole. Even a fraction that is less than 1 describes "one whole measure."

So, that means that we're already familiar with the notation, to a certain extent.

The top number is the numerator (how many things are in the whole) and the bottom is the denominator (what kind of things).

Take: 4/4

The top number in the fraction is four, so we know that there's four "things" in the measure, or beats, as they're referred to. (A beat is a steady pulse, so four steady pulses per measure.)

The bottom number is also four, so we know that the "1/4th note," or quarter note, receives one beat. That's the "kind of thing (beat)."

Great, so in 4/4 we have four beats per measure, and the quarter note gets the beat.

In this case, the first note is a quarter note, which equals one beat. So we have three beats left in the measure.

The second two notes are eighth notes, and two of those adds up to a quarter, so there's our second beat.

The last two markings are quarter rests, of which there are two, and therein lie the last two beats. And so, all of our four beats are accounted for.

We could do this for, ahdunno, 3/4 as well.

We would expect to find 3 beats in each measure, with, once again, a quarter note receiving one beat.

Take this song:

You can see that all the measures have exactly three beats when you do the math.

How to read time signatures where the fraction form is not specified:

If you, in some unusual circumstance (like a test) come across music without a time signature noted in the front, you can figure it out quite easily by "reverse engineering" the meter.

For example:

If we pretend the time signature is not notated at the beginning, we must figure out what it is with what we have. But remember, the time signature at the beginning of a piece is simply an observation about how the rest of the piece is written. It is the symptom, not the cause. Therefore, we can look at the actual piece and come to figure out our time signature.

Once again in above measure, we can see that we have four quarter beats, so 4/4 is an obvious conclusion. However, you may notice that there are other possible answers. Basically, any fraction equivalent to 1 where the numbers are multiples of two. This could be read as

2/2

4/4

8/8

etc...

They're equivalent fractions, that could describe the same thing. This is where it can get a bit confusing, but usually it will make sense if you hear the piece.

4/4 has four big pulses, and those can be divided into two parts (or more) but the four beats remain prominent.

2/2, while it can be read as 4/4, has a fundamentally different feel. It, quite simply, has two beats, and the half note gets a beat. So if you have a measure with four quarter notes in 2/2, it will feel like two beats which have each been divided in half. It's how the music is felt.

I'm getting tired, so I'm gonna stop typing now... I hope this helps, and if you have questions, please comment!

• Some of this is helpful for music where the transcriptions are just sloppy and missing something, but it helps less for music in free time like certain prog rock or impressionist pieces (e.g., the Gnossiennes). Commented Jan 21, 2017 at 6:21
• @BraddSzonye Yeah, I didn't really know that free meter existed when I wrote this (learn something new every day!) so I assumed the OP, which said "I can't read music yet," was referring to some music theory test (I've seen 'infer the time signature' tests before) Commented Jan 23, 2017 at 16:06

I'm guessing that you have music with this symbol in the beginning of the first bar. It means the music is in "common time", or 4/4.

Also, as General Nuisance noted in the comments below, a C with a line through it is the symbol for cut time, or 2/2. ¢ is pretty close for casual use but I'd not use it in a score.

• Please note that a ¢ as a time signature means cut time. Commented Jan 21, 2017 at 5:33
• Haven't seen that on a page since piano lessons! Good one, adding it to my answer. Commented Jan 21, 2017 at 5:37
• A cent sign is not a good approximation of the cut time marker, especially in the font used here. Commented Jan 21, 2017 at 6:15
• There's a Unicode symbol for cut time, apparently: 𝄵 (It doesn't show up on my system, but maybe it shows up on yours.) Commented Jan 21, 2017 at 15:30
• Commented Jan 23, 2017 at 1:36

If no time signature is written - the most likely place for a beginner to have seen this is in church music - it is because you're not MEANT to work out what it is! Just let it flow...

But yes, this might just be about not knowing what C means as a time signature.

• I don't understand how the other answers don't address this directly. I know of two pieces with no time signatures in my church hymnal. Commented Mar 5, 2017 at 13:31
• In hymnals it's just not practical to keep changing the time signature, because of the limited space, and because alignment is more important than the indication would be, and because the time signature isn't going to help 95% of the congregation anyway. And shifting meter is very common in hymns. Commented Oct 27, 2022 at 14:50

Most pieces have a time sig. Even ones where that time sig. needs to be changed every few bars. It's there as a help to the reader; it saves having to calculate how many of what beats are in each bar.As already stated, it's something after the fact, sometimes not even apparent to a songwriter until the song gets written on paper. When, in some pieces, the time sig changes, it's up to the writer to tell the reader with a new time sig.

If a piece has no time sig. - I can't remember seeing any music without - it's probably because it's in free time. In which case, there should be some barlines to indicate emphases, which is essentially what bar lines and time sigs do.

General Nuisance mentioned equivalent fractions, but you need to be aware that they don't always mean what they say. 3/4 is equivalent to 6/8, but they mean very different things, even though they both add up to 3 'beats' in a bar.

• Sorry Tim but 6/8 normally has only two beats in a bar!
– JimM
Commented Jan 21, 2017 at 11:36
• @JimM - that's why the word 'beats' was written as such. I know what you mean and you're correct. I should put each bar contains the equivalent of 3 crotchets (what I call one beat notes, aka 1/4 notes)
– Tim
Commented Jan 21, 2017 at 12:21
• Exactly, which is why I was so "Yeah, it's like this, but it can be kind of confusing unless you hear the song." For someone who, as I judge the OP to be, does not have as much experience with "feeling music," it could be easy to assume that a song in 6/8 is a song in 3/4, or whatever. I once transcribed a version of "What Child is This" for violin so I could mess with some chords, and even though it was played in 6/8, I wrote it in 3/4 because I just didn't really think about it as 6/8 (although, of course, anybody could tell you that it was... STILL WORKS!!;-P) Commented Jan 21, 2017 at 16:57

It should always be shown on the sheet music. If it is not numbers and is instead the letter "C", that means 4/4 common time. If it is a "C" with a cross through it, it means "cut time" and it is 2/2.

If you are asking how to read time signatures, I am going to simplify it as much as I can. I found it hard to understand exactly what a time signature meant when I first started playing music.

Let's use 4/4 as an example.

The top 4 means there are 4 beats in a bar.

The bottom 4 dictates what type of beat. It works kind of like a fraction in this way, 4 is a "quarter note" or a crotchet.

Let's use 2/4 as another example.

This means there are 2 quarter notes in a bar.

What about time signatures like 6/8?

This would mean that there would be 6 beats in a bar. However, they would be a different type of beat than the quarter note. They would be half a quarter note, so an "eighth note" or a quaver.

I really hope I explained it well enough. Music involves a lot of maths, but it's not too hard to understand if explained correctly.

It's a bit tricky: you have to derive it, here from the lowest bass-note, see diagram. Observations:

• lowest note is whole note (= length of 4 quarter notes)
• marked red, regular pattern, so you'd draw barlines at the red positions nowadays
• crosscheck to the right, by identifying multiples of quarter notes (blue)

So I conlcude: `time signature is 4/4`.

• Well, yes. But that's not a complete method. And as the op doesn't read music... Commented Oct 27, 2022 at 15:43