I am unsure if it can be answered but what is the difference between the piano sounding types. For instance: mellow, soft, upright, jazz, bright, studio, ambient, dark, compound, doubled, airy, hollow, pitched, detuned, old, broken, tapered, padded, dampered and etc.
Your list contains quite a lot of different types of adjectives. I'd pick your question as "what contributes to the characteristic of the sound of a piano", as describing each and every type of sound would be too broad.
Factors which contribute to the sound (tone) of a piano note include:
- Hardness / softness of hammer (bright / mellow sound)
- Length of string (upright / grand sound, time of loudness decay)
- Resonance of the piano strings with high register strings or duplex sections of the strings (cold / warm sound)
- How in-tune are the strings of each note (in-tune / 60s' night-bar sound)
- Temperament used in tuning (baroque / classical / jazz / atonal sound)
- Distance of microphone to piano (sound of hammer hitting the string is audible or not)
- Quality of the strings (harmony / dissonance with other notes)