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I am playing violin with open strings but can not do with fingering, while doing fingering I am not placing fingers in right positions, how do I place fingers in right positions? Is there any measures (distance) for place fingers on violin?

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The distance for each note on the fingerboard is dependent on each instrument's setup and string height above the fingerboard, and varies from instrument to instrument. Each instrument has to be played "by ear", listening to the fingered note and making corrections to the pitch.

For beginning violinists a teacher may put some finger markings on the fingerboard to help tell where approximately the fingers should go. The student should learn to hear the notes in tune as soon as possible and stop looking at the fingers once ear training has advanced enough.

Usually ear training starts with the major scale, and on the violin the D Major scale is commonly used, as the finger positions are in the same shape on the D and A strings, making it easier to practice placing the fingers on the strings.

To get your fingers in the right place without marking your fingerboard you will need to have a reference of what the correct notes are. Using a keyboard or recorded scales would work. An electronic tuner may be used, but having an audible pitch to match to is better than a visual reference for ear training.

If you wish to mark your fingerboard, a pencil may be used to create temporary marks on the board, or finger marking tape or stickers are available for purchase.

To put the marks in the correct position a tuner may be used, or if your pitch matching is good, a keyboard or other tuned instrument will work. Select a string and play the fingered note until you have the spot that is in tune, then place the mark or sticker. In playing, the mark will not be accurate but will only be close to where the pitch is. You will still have to adjust your finger to get the correct pitch.

You are working on muscle memory of where the finger lands, so it is important that you have your hand positioned correctly on the neck, and your first finger positioned in front of the nut. After you have a general idea of where the notes are you will want to practice while not looking at your hand so that you develop hand-to-ear coordination instead of the eye telling the hand where to go.

And, as is so often recommended on this site, a teacher is the most efficient way to get help with this.

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You place the fingers where the pitch is right, and if the pitch isn't right, you correct it. Playing violin, in particular starting to play, is not going to work without good pitch perception. Check against a keyboard instrument or other instrument with reliable pitches, or with an electronic tuner.

For getting an initial feeling, you might want to check how scales work out on a fretted instrument like a guitar. Now guitar strings are quite longer, so the distances are more akin to what you'd have on a cello than a violin, but the patterns and relative distances are at least a hint.

More representative with regard to the distances and intervals would be a mandolin, but a lot fewer people have one of those lying around than a guitar.

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