What are some alternatives to the 10-vol. Suzuki Violin School series suited for self-taught adult beginners with a solid musical background?
Essential Elements - Violin and the O'Conner violin method are good alternatives by my estimation. I was 'self taught' for my first few years of violin with very little musical background before. At the time I didn't try anything but Suzuki but I as I got more advanced and tried different instruments and teachers I got did a bit from both mentioned above. They all have different philosophies and motivations but at the end of each you'll be able to hold the violin and play a few pieces. You might even be able to play a song or two that you hear on the radio by ear.
Side note I wish the string community would calm down a bit. People have to work with what they have. Nobody ever accidentally nuked an allied state while self-learning violin. If a guy wants to try something out and asks for a book recommendation just give him a book recommendation. Violin playing isn't brain surgery; It is for the majority of players a fun little pastime. No need to be all preachy to people who just want to step in for a little fun.
As I understand it, the Suzuki method is designed to train young children by a system of imitation. Not at all appropriate for a musically literate adult.
I'm not going to recommend a book. There are just too many ways to learn violin wrong. Take at least SOME lessons. The teacher will then recommend material.