As Tim suggests, in a Cm-F7 progression, it is desirable to use Dorian minor and F Mixolydian because they both derive from Bb maj. Playing C Aeolian minor, by contrast, would not fit in the Bb maj parent scale.
More generally, the reason this will sound good is because it enhances melodic continuity between the two chords. When playing C Dorian and F Mixolydian, the A is a shared tone. C Aeolian, by contrast, would have one fewer shared tone due to the presence of the Ab.
So the general principle being relied on here is: it will usually sound good to choose the mode that enhances continuity. So you are correct that it will sound good to choose C Dorian in any scenario involving Cmin-XXXX where XXXX is derived from the Bb maj scale. But we could extend the rule more broadly than that.
For example, let's imagine a Cmin-A9 progression. The A9 chord is a dominant 7th chord with a natural 9th. C Dorian would sound good because it has an A, which would be shared with A Mixolydian. But if the progression instead were Cmin-Ab7, then it might be better to play C Aeolian, because then the Ab will be shared with whatever scale is played over Ab7 (perhaps Ab Lydian Dominant or Ab Mixolydian).
So as a general rule, one approach for choosing a mode is to maximize the shared tones with the next chord.