D min, C Maj, F Maj, and Bb Maj are all in F major where we have all three primary chords I, IV, V, (F, Bb, C respectively.)
A Maj would be the odd chord out. If the key is F major, this chord could be V/vi which is a very common "secondary dominant."
You could also say the key is D minor. In this case the A major is the dominant in the key of D minor. But, if we are only looking at a list of chords, the absence of G minor makes it a little bit less convincing.
The typical way of resolving this question is to look at beginning and ending of the music where you usually see the music start in end in one key. Or, you might look to see if either D minor or F major get more emphasis to become the key center.
I'm implying that all three primary chords are needed to define a key, but that is not a necessity. It's just one way to try to make a judgement call about this list of chords.
A = V/vi,
Dm = vi,
C = V,
F = I,
Bb = IV
In D minor:
A = V,
Dm = i,
C = VII,
F = III,
Bb = VI
...containing the chords...
FWIW: I'm not considering this a 'progression' in the sense that it specifies the order the chords are played it. Also, I'm not assuming any one chord or group of chords is used more than the others.