# how can you identify key signatures with flats

I know that when a key signature has sharps, the key indicated is always one half step above the last sharp in the key signature:

For example, the key of D Major has two sharps - F# and C# - D is one half step higher than the last sharp.

Can anyone give me a similar easy rule that works with flat key signatures?

• To find the name of a key signature with sharps, look at the sharp farthest to the right. The key signature is the note a half step above that last sharp. Key signatures can specify major or minor keys. To determine the name of a minor key, find the name of the key in major and then count backwards three half steps. – Pigion Li 391 Sep 21 '17 at 10:45
• Possible duplicate of What is a key signature? – Carl Witthoft Sep 21 '17 at 11:18
• @Care Witthoft -very faint possibility, but not really a dupe. And how obvious to someone who doesn't understand? – Tim Sep 21 '17 at 11:20
• This is a legitimate question that doesn't seem to have an answer on this site. It's just worded very poorly. The question should be, "How do I determine what key a piece is in, given the key signature?". OP has answered half of this in his comment. Remember, SE is supposed to be a repository of answers, like a question-driven Wikipedia. And it's actually entirely valid to ask a question and answer it yourself. – MattPutnam Sep 21 '17 at 17:12
• @GeneralNuisance - does it seem odd that a question is posed, and an answer to an almost identical question is posted in the comments? No-one has been impolite, but the question itself is in dire need of rephrasing, wouldn't you agree? – Tim Sep 22 '17 at 10:30

You can find the second to last flat, and that's the major key signature. Flats are easy!

For example:

The second to last flat is on G, so Gb Major.

This trick works for all of them except, of course, F Major, which has one flat:

Just remember that one flat is F Major.

For minor key signatures, you can count up six scale degrees on the major key signature, or count down three half steps. I usually count down, because for me that's easier, but it's technically more correct to view the minor key signature as starting on the sixth scale degree.

(Taken from another answer of mine from this question: Finding The Key Of A Song, which I initially misunderstood and this answer isn't relevant to it, but I am glad I left it up!)

The last flat shown is the fourth note from the scale of the key. Thus just Bb shown, this is the fourth note from F, the key in question.

A key sig.can also mean minor key, so with last (only) flat as Bb, count up two tones to the key note, of D. Thus, Dm.