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This is from Schubert Impromptu Op.90 No.2 in Eb major: enter image description here

How do you decide the chord for the 3rd bar? I know Db13 is probably not right for it, but how can you tell it's not Db13? It has all the notes for that chord.

Generally, how do you choose the main notes of a melody to tell its chord?

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    That bar contains an entire scale run! Obviously a simple "which notes occur in the bar" is not a sufficient criterion for harmonic analysis. – Kilian Foth Nov 21 '17 at 9:02
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The main notes are usually found on the main emphasised parts of a bar. In 4/4 they're beats 1 and 3. Here, in 9/8 they're on beats 1, 2 and 3 - the notes F, Ab and Eb respectively.

This gives the 'chord notes' of Db, F, Ab and Eb, which tend to constitute a Db add9.

Db13 has 1,3,5,b7,9,11 and 13 in it technically, so just about every note in the scale! We tend not to consider each and every note in a melody line as being potentially part of the underlying harmony, it's way too complex, and inaccurate to boot. Thus, I'm saying it's not Db13 !

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    Given the context, Classical music, I'd think that this would be a Db7 chord, not a Db add9. While chord tones often fall on the strong beats, that's not always the case. – Basstickler Nov 21 '17 at 19:14
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To me, it sounds like a straightforward Db7, the dominant seventh chord to Gb major, which follows immediately.

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