# How do you center partial measure rests in LilyPond?

I'm using \partial to create a pickup in LilyPond, and I'm trying to fill it with rests, so I'm using the command:

\partial 4 r4


This works, but the output is ugly and off center:

How do I make this quarter rest centered nicely? Changing r4 to R4 causes the rest to disappear.

One possible way is by using this function developed a few years ago. (Credit goes to David Nalesnik for doing a lot of this work!) One of the things this function defines is centerNoteColumnOn, which can be used to create exactly what you're going for.

#(set-global-staff-size 20)

#(define (sort-by-X-coord sys grob-lst)
"Arranges a list of grobs in ascending order by their X-coordinates"
(let* ((X-coord (lambda (x) (ly:grob-relative-coordinate x sys X)))
(comparator (lambda (p q) (< (X-coord p) (X-coord q)))))

(sort grob-lst comparator)))

#(define (find-bounding-grobs note-column grob-lst)
(let* ((sys (ly:grob-system note-column))
(X-coord (lambda (n) (ly:grob-relative-coordinate n sys X)))
(note-column-X (X-coord note-column)))

(define (helper lst)
(if (and (< (X-coord (car lst)) note-column-X)
(> (X-coord (cadr lst)) note-column-X))
(cons (car lst) (cadr lst))
(if (null? (cddr lst))
(cons note-column note-column)
(helper (cdr lst)))))

(helper grob-lst)))

#(define (read-out ls1 ls2 ls3 symbol)
"Filters all elements of ls1 from ls2 and appends it to ls3"
(set! ls3 (append ls3 (filter (lambda (x) (eq? (car ls1) (symbol x))) ls2)))
(if (null? (cdr ls1))
ls3
(read-out (cdr ls1) ls2 ls3 symbol)))

#(define ((center-note-column x-offs) grob)
(let* ((sys (ly:grob-system grob))
(elements-lst (ly:grob-array->list (ly:grob-object sys 'all-elements)))
(grob-name (lambda (x) (assq-ref (ly:grob-property x 'meta) 'name)))
(X-extent (lambda (q) (ly:grob-extent q sys X)))
;; NoteColumn
(note-column-coord (ly:grob-relative-coordinate grob sys X))
(grob-ext (X-extent grob))
(grob-length (interval-length grob-ext))
'()))
'()))
(interval-length (X-extent one-note-head)) ;; NB
0))
;; Stem
(stem (ly:grob-object grob 'stem))
(stem-dir (ly:grob-property stem 'direction))
(stem-length-x (interval-length (X-extent stem))) ;; NB
;; DotColumn
(dot-column (ly:note-column-dot-column grob))
;; AccidentalPlacement
(accidental-placement (ly:note-column-accidentals grob))
;; Arpeggio
(arpeggio (ly:grob-object grob 'arpeggio))
;; Rest
(rest (ly:grob-object grob 'rest))
;; Grobs to center between
(args (list 'BarLine
'Clef
'KeySignature
'KeyCancellation
'TimeSignature))
(grob-lst (read-out args elements-lst '() grob-name))
(new-grob-lst (remove (lambda (x) (interval-empty? (X-extent x))) grob-lst))
(sorted-grob-lst (sort-by-X-coord sys new-grob-lst))
;; Bounds
(bounds (find-bounding-grobs grob sorted-grob-lst))
(left (cdr (X-extent (car bounds))))
(right (car (X-extent (cdr bounds))))

;;(bounds-coord (cons left right)) ;; delete

(basic-offset
(- (average left right)
(interval-center (X-extent grob))
(* -1 x-offs)))
(dir-correction
(if (> grob-length one-note-head-length)
(* stem-dir (* -2 stem-length-x) grob-length)
0))

) ;; End of Defs in let*

;; Calculation
(begin
;;(display "\n\tbounds: \t")(write bounds)
(for-each
(lambda (x)
(cond ((ly:grob? x)
(ly:grob-translate-axis!
x
(- basic-offset dir-correction)
X))))
(list
(cond ((not (null? note-heads)) grob))
dot-column accidental-placement arpeggio rest))
)))

centerNoteColumnOn = \override Staff.NoteColumn #'after-line-breaking = #(center-note-column 0)

centerNoteColumnOff = \revert Staff.NoteColumn #'after-line-breaking

onceCenterNoteColumn =
#(define-music-function (parser location x-offs)(number?)
#{
\once \override Staff.NoteColumn #'after-line-breaking = #(center-note-column x-offs)
#})

\version "2.19.63"

music = \relative c'' {
<<
\partial 4
{
\centerNoteColumnOn
r4 |
\centerNoteColumnOff % if you want, at least
c1 |
}
\\
{
e,4 |
e1 |
}
>>

}

\score {
\new Staff \music
\layout { }
}